Nader decided he needed to regain the initiative as soon as possible to save his position because revolts were already breaking out in Iran. When his orders had been carried out, however, Nader instantly regretted it, crying out to his courtiers, "What is a father? Sikh Attacks. In 1741, while Nader was passing through the forest of Mazanderan on his way to fight the Daghestanis, an assassin took a shot at him but Nader was only lightly wounded. Nader Shah had not yet had time to get dressed; Muhammad Quli Khan ran in first and struck him with a great blow of his sword which felled him to the ground; two or three others followed suit; the wretched monarch, covered in his own blood, attempted – but was too weak – to get up, and cried out, ‘Why do you want to kill me?  Adil Shah was deposed within a year. In the subsequent peace negotiations, the Ottomans refused to acknowledge Ja'farism as a fifth mazhab but they did allow Iranian pilgrims to go on the hajj.  Though Nader managed to take most of Dagestan during his campaign, the effective guerrilla warfare as deployed by the Lezgins, but also the Avars and Laks made the Iranian re-conquest of the particular North Caucasian region a short lived one; several years later, Nader was forced to withdraw. While this was going on, Nader left Kabul due to lack of supplies and started for Gandamak on August 25. , Nader Shah became the Persian ruler in 1730. Afterwards he became increasingly despotic as his health declined markedly. Among a trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also looted the Koh-i-Noor (meaning "Mountain of Light" in Persian) and Darya-ye Noor (meaning "Sea of Light") diamonds.  Nader, furious, reacted by ordering his soldiers to sack the city. Nader Shah was well known to the European public of the time.  The small group of close intimates, Nader's friends, included Tahmasp Khan Jalayer and Hasan-Ali Beg Bestami. Nadir Shah’s Invasion 1738-39 Nadir Shah Mohammad Shah British Conquest of Bengal Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah Defeat in the War of Pallassy 1757 courtesy the conspiracy of Lord Clive and Mir Ja’afar. Nadir Shah`s progress towards Delhi and general massacre in Delhi, and his return to Iran are described in detail. The imperial court administration was corrupt and weak.  The booty they had collected was loaded on 700 elephants, 4,000 camels, and 12,000 horses. Durrani invaded India nine times between 1747 to 1769.In the 1760s he made four attempts to crush the Sikhs, but his own kingdom was restive with serious revolts, and he eventually lost control of the Punjab to them. In 1740 he conquered Khanate of Khiva.  It was published in 1770 as Histoire de Nadir Chah. In March 1735, he signed a treaty with the Russians in Ganja by which the latter agreed to withdraw all of their troops from Iranian territory, those which had not been ceded back by the 1732 Treaty of Resht yet, resulting in the reestablishment of Iranian rule over all of the Caucasus and northern mainland Iran again. ", Muhammad Shah was forced to beg for mercy.  In the far east, Ahmad Shah Durrani had already proclaimed independence, marking the foundation of modern Afghanistan. , In the spring of 1730, Nader attacked Iran's archrival the Ottomans and regained most of the territory lost during the recent chaos. Having heard rumours that his father had died, he had made preparations for assuming the crown. He built a new city near Kandahar, which he named "Naderabad". He then, to the accompaniment of the rolling of drums and the blaring of trumpets, unsheathed his great battle sword in a grand flourish to the great and loud acclaim and wild cheers of the Afsharid troops present. The new shah of the Ghilzai Afghans, Ashraf, decided to move against Nader but in September 1729, Nader defeated him at the Battle of Damghan and again decisively in November at Murchakhort. Bring me my weapons!’ The assassins were struck with fear by these words and wanted to escape, but ran straight into the two chiefs of the murder-conspiracy, who allayed their fears and made them go into the tent again. Nature endowed him with all the great qualities that make heroes ... His dyed beard made a sharp contrast with his completely gray hair; his natural physique was strong, tall, and his waist was proportional to his growth; his expression was gloomy, with an oblong face, an aquiline nose and a beautiful mouth, but with his lower lip protruding forward. Nader asked for the Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused. The city was besieged for a week until on June 19, the tower of Aqa-bin collapsed, and the citadel capitulated. , Tahmasp and the Qajar leader Fath Ali Khan (the ancestor of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar) contacted Nader and asked him to join their cause and drive the Ghilzai Afghans out of Khorasan. Lockhart, L., "Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources", London: Luzac & Co., 1938, 21 : Stephen Erdely and Valentin A. Riasanovski.  In addition, he increased the number of soldiers under his command and reduced the number of soldiers under tribal and provincial control. In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty in Afghanistan, he then began to launch raids across the Hindu Kush mountains into Northern India, which, at that time, was under the rule of the Mughal Empire. , At the age of 13, his father died and Nader had to find a way to support himself and his mother. SIKH NEWS Sponsor by DESHBANDHU KAUR ... Once Mughal administration was weakened, foreigners like Nadir Shah invaded 5 years after Martyrdom of Banda Singh Bahadur and then when Kapur Singh had further weakened Mughals, Abdali invaded Punjab (and subsequently fought Marathas at Delhi who had replaced Mughals). How did the Sikhs loot Nadir Shah's army? He entered the city on 20 March 1739 and occupied Shah Jehan’s imperial suite in the Red Fort.  In 1738 Nader Shah besieged and destroyed the last Hotaki seat of power at Kandahar. Then he obtained a promise of a tribute of 2 million Rupees annually from Lahore, and confirmed the appointment of Zakaria Khan at Lahore and of his son Shah Nawaz Khan at Multan (where Abdus Samad Khan had just died). Meanwhile, Iran's imperial neighboring rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians, took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize and divide territory for themselves. He has such an unusually loud voice that he can give orders to his people at a distance of about 100 yards. 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