Parsons, T. (1951). x��\Y��6~o���}�m�(�� sd6�@v�Iy��A��Bd�+���ߪ�(ɖ؃͐�=�%���:�:��7MWn�MǾ���M��'��>�?�����Gy�c�+EWև��O�;|�{Y?�Y�r�8�}�,�~�F����wv��y�p{s��3�� b���;`��Q���� Medicine refers to the social institution that seeks to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and to promote health in its various dimensions. Despite these possible faults, the symbolic interactionist approach reminds us that health and illness do have a subjective as well as an objective reality. Poor medical care is likewise dysfunctional for society, as people who are ill face greater difficulty in becoming healthy and people who are healthy are more likely to become ill. For a person to be considered legitimately sick, said Parsons, several expectations must be met. <> Drugs in America: A documentary history. After Ritalin, a drug that reduces hyperactivity, was developed, their behavior came to be considered a medical problem and the ADHD diagnosis was increasingly applied, and tens of thousands of children went to physicians’ offices and were given Ritalin or similar drugs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Wadsworth. It is important to note that no theory is right or wrong. (2011). Depending on the research at hand, one may be more efficient or cost effective, but that does not make the others wrong. Saints, sinners and standards of femininity: Discursive constructions of anorexia nervosa and obesity in women’s magazines. Since it sometimes describes society as a thing only in the minds of people (Slattery, 2007). Mead argued that people's selves are social products, but that these selves are also purposive and creative, and believed that the true test of any theory was that it was "useful in solving complex social problems". C���A���.��}�p��>����ȅ��a�bl���>��iiޝ����gYb�{����6JE����O[��o`�m����%��!Ͱ_� 1 0 obj It also implies that from a realistic point of view Parsons thus viewed the physician-patient relationship as hierarchical: the physician gives the orders (or, more accurately, provides advice and instructions), and the patient follows them. Human Organization, 68(3), 293–306. It also implies that from a realistic point of view, the interpretations that are being made will not make much difference. The criticisms toward symbolic interactionism were more intense earlier in its history than of late due to its perceived departure from scientific methodology … Second, Parsons’s discussion ignores the fact, mentioned earlier, that our social backgrounds affect the likelihood of becoming ill and the quality of medical care we receive. Table 13.1 “Theory Snapshot” summarizes what they say. Sometimes they are even told to stay in bed when they want to remain active. Ill health impairs our ability to perform our roles in society, and if too many people are unhealthy, society’s functioning and stability suffer. Symbolic interactionsim is of major importance in contemporary sociology. To further “desex” the situation and reduce any potential uneasiness, a female nurse is often present during the exam. New York, NY: Free Press. First, sick people should not be perceived as having caused their own health problem. If they do not want to get well or, worse yet, are perceived as faking their illness or malingering after becoming healthier, they are no longer considered legitimately ill by the people who know them or, more generally, by society itself. A good way to teach it would … Diamond, A. Although seen as a weakness by many critics of the theory, the economical approach to relationships can help get to the bottom line very quickly. Ƴ�&�t'�Jj�T���@�`U_�i/O�\�����S�Y+�Y��-;z�>������WZST���Gë�0�@!�ܢ~_�r��J����i�(#�R)�ٓ|j�� r-/��)V�B��/�%��h�9y����&��o��d*���Cx-�S��N�e�RC�€+K�����B{OP�Jb�/tm�-'�6���c[ ����� �PU PKU4�yr To the extent that physicians do not always provide the best medical care, the hierarchy that Parsons favored is at least partly to blame. Obesity is a known health risk, but a “fat pride” or “fat acceptance” movement composed mainly of heavy individuals is arguing that obesity’s health risks are exaggerated and calling attention to society’s discrimination against overweight people. Its growth in popularity coincides with the constructivist aspects of symbolic interactionism. The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and in the quality of health care. The physician-patient relationship is hierarchical: The physician provides instructions, and the patient needs to follow them. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. On the good side, they have believed they are the most qualified professionals to diagnose problems and to treat people who have these problems. Nursing Standard, 25(38), 28–28. This analysis strives to explain how people’s social standing affects their … Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. A generation or more ago, they would have been considered merely as overly active. The definition of their behavior as a medical problem was very lucrative for physicians and for the company that developed Ritalin, and it also obscured the possible roots of their behavior in inadequate parenting, stultifying schools, or even gender socialization, as most hyperactive kids are boys (Conrad, 2008; Rao & Seaton, 2010). The first important aspect of symbolic interactionism to society members is called values. Symbolic interactionism is the study of the relationship between self and society that focuses on the symbolic processes of communication between participants. The ADHD example just discussed also illustrates symbolic interactionist theory’s concerns, as a behavior that was not previously considered an illness came to be defined as one after the development of Ritalin. endobj <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> symbolic interactionism: (1) a focus on the interaction between the actor and the world, (2) a view of both the actor and the world as dynamic processes and not static structures, and (3) the great importance attributed to the actor’s ability to interpret the social world. People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill, and once they do become ill, inadequate health care makes it more difficult for them to become well. Although such discrimination is certainly unfortunate, critics say the movement is going too far in trying to minimize obesity’s risks (Diamond, 2011). In a more current example, an attempt to redefine obesity is now under way in the United States. ��S��� NѨ���]�o�Dcό�䱏n�7�������([V�q��KV'���i�I~���%~_�����^s���F+����d�fG��!�k��rsD�͇y��P��������/� ���0/�յ�ӏڷ�fO�/��r��ɈV�MتI�s�N��Z��͙��/���g�A�/�c���4�-�O{ m|�ް��S�Aב^�~�8����rD���G��Rr�ˌ��+���. rl=zy*+/[a����g��Ju�v��4��9C}��$�P�b)�z��Aa���So������P��D��1��w46j;�ԤA٩RAW3���n�1�=��j�O��:׮���a��T�$�Jac�6f���� �/��>&S��~j�N�mc�iӻ[Ȥ�·(�s�y@�@�>U��@�RMEԕ���Op����{c�@޾>�0�*��޵ �`�l�[�� !����˄�V���!F�~�Z�*eVg����55(� ������|Y�G��U��E�ǘ4�v�a9�L&ʗG�u��*_F@5T��e��E (Ed.). If someone is driving drunk and smashes into a tree, there is much less sympathy than if the driver had been sober and skidded off the road in icy weather. There are several varieties of symbolic interactionism with different approaches to empirical research and … ����$(L\�$����$���d����J&k,�1�0�#�W�;'* Social Problems by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Gender and the social construction of illness (2nd ed.). Several examples illustrate conflict theory’s criticism. Second, sick people must want to get well. As conceived by Talcott Parsons (1951), the functionalist perspective emphasizes that good health and effective medical care are essential for a society’s ability to function. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Recognizes that perceptions of reality are variable and changing. Conrad, P. (2008). Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism a. Considers the social environment in which learning takes place. Home > A Level and IB > Sociology > Interactionism Interactionism 1.5 / 5 based on 2 ratings? They may have honestly felt that midwives were inadequately trained, but they also fully recognized that obstetrical care would be quite lucrative (Ehrenreich & English, 2005). Social inequality characterizes the quality of health and the quality of health care. A society’s culture and social structure also affect health and health care. The basic notion of symbolic interactionism is that human action and interaction are understandable only through the exchange of meaningful communication or symbols. Critics also say the approach neglects the effects of social inequality for health and illness. Symbolic Interactionism is often times related and connected with social structure. If all these expectations are met, said Parsons, sick people are treated as sick by their family, their friends, and other people they know, and they become exempt from their normal obligations to all these people.