During Jahangir’s reign, except some occasional outbursts of religious zeal towards Islam, the State maintained the spirit of religious tolerance towards all its subjects.. Shah Jahan, when compared to his father Akbar, undoubtedly favoured Islam: it can be substantiated from the facts that … Unlike Aurangzeb, among all Mughal emperors Akbar implemented the most liberal religious policy. Aurangzeb has been criticized by historians on the eve of his religious policy and administration. From the standpoint of Aurangzeb’s Hindu subjects, the real impact of his policies may have started to have been felt in 1668-69. 1.1 In his well-known book, The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors , dedicated to Sir Jadunath Sarkar, S. R. Sharma not only calls Aurangzeb a puritan, but postulates that "Muslim theology triumphed" with his accession, (p. 1 18). Many temples were also destroyed that time. Religious Policy. Religious policy of Aurangzeb was based on the Islamic theory of kinship. At the beginning of his reign, Aurangzeb prohibited the kalma being inscribed on coins, as it trampled underfoot or be defiled while passing from one hand to another. He put ban on the practice, which were considered as against Is­lamic spirit. The religious policy of Akbar is known as 'Din-e-ilahi', which literally means the integrity of all the religions. The religion policy of Mughal was largely the reflection of the personal religious views etc. As a ruler, Aurangzeb had to contend with many political, economic, social and administrative problems. Aurangzeb banned the festival of Nauroz, as it was considered as Zoroastrian practice favored by the Safavid rulers of Iran. Conclusion Historians are deeply divided when it comes to Aurangzeb's reign and his religious policies. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat.He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb felt that he was superior not only had he become superior to administer the empire in a better way but also to protect and strengthen Islam particularly its Sunni faith. Aurangzeb’s religious ideas and beliefs on the one hand, and his political or public policies on the other, however, clashed on many occasions and he faced difficult choices. Aurangzeb thought that the death of the Raja had provided him with a further opportunity to advance in his policy of humiliating the Rajas and the Hindus in general. Aurangzeb’s religious beliefs cannot be considered as the basis of his political policies. According to some, he is known to have turned Akbar's policy of religious toleration and thus weakening the loyalty of the hindus towards Mughals in turn, leading to communal uproars and uprisings which eroded the vitality of the empire. And many ceremonies and festivals were banned that time. While . The author then goes on to list the various acts of oppression or bigotry perpetrated by Aurangzeb during his long He was a strict follower of the Sunni sect, to the extent that he persecuted the members of the Shia sect. So, the religious policies of both Akbar and Aurangzeb are the most differing, according to the stances taken by them. Aurangzeb’s religious policy in a rigid framework, based on his personal religious beliefs. keen to ensure that the state did not violate the sharia, he … He reimposed the jiziya, the hated poll-tax on non- Muslims, which the wise and compassionate Akbar had abolished early in his region. It was a very narrow and ortho­doxy kind of policy taken by Aurangzeb. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. The state of religious policy during Aurangzeb can be determined by the words of M. L. Roy Choudhury, “ The year 1669 A.D. is a memorable year in the history of iconoclasm in India. Hindu religious fairs were outlawed in 1668, and an edict of the following year prohibited construction of Hindu temples as well as the repair of old ones.

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